Glossary

This sports for development (S4D) glossary is a repository encompassing a broad spectrum of terms and concepts central to sports, physical activity, and development. This resource has been created to help contextualize knowledge and ideas within the S4D sector to the Indian context.

The collection of terminologies aims to enrich and accelerate the conversations around the S4D sector and initiatives. It serves as a foundational tool for capacity building within the sector, enabling individuals and organizations to acquire, apply, and advance their knowledge and skills effectively.

It is a step towards ensuring physical literacy and activity within the country and encouraging people to be active and utilize sports and physical activity (SAPA). This glossary is an evolving document that will keep evolving to accommodate the needs of the sector. It is a reference point for stakeholders already working in or interested in S4D to help facilitate insightful conversations with a shared vocabulary.

Abuse

Additionally vulnerable

Child protection

Child safeguarding

Health

Marginalized communities

Non-communicable diseases

Sexual abuse

Sexual harassment

Trauma

Violence

Violence against children

Abuse

Abuse is physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that frighten, intimidate, terrorize, manipulate, hurt, humiliate, blame, injure, or wound someone.

Source: https://www.un.org/

Additionally vulnerable

Athletes or those members of society that do not have access to the same choices as others due to dependency on others and/or an impaired ability to resist, avoid, or understand abuse. This term is commonly used to refer to persons with disabilities. (adapted definition)

Source: https://pjp-eu.coe.int

Child protection

Child protection is the set of actions implemented when a child is identified as being at risk of being harmed, abused, neglected, or exploited. It should be seen as an element of child safeguarding.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Child safeguarding

Child safeguarding is the set of actions, measures, and procedures taken to ensure that all children are kept safe from harm, abuse, neglect, or exploitation whilst in care.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Health

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Source: https://www.who.int/

Marginalized Communities

Being marginalized refers to being treated separately from the rest of society, forced to occupy the fringes and edges. Along with material deprivation, marginalized individuals are often also excluded from services, programs, and policies.

Source: https://sportstec.co.za/

Non-communicable diseases

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors. The main types of NCD are cardiovascular diseases (such as heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma), and diabetes.

Source: https://www.who.int

Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse means the actual or threatened physical violation of a sexual nature, whether by force or under unequal conditions.

Source: https://www.unhcr.org/in/

Sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is any unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offense or humiliation. Sexual harassment is grave per se and inherently causes individual, social, and reputational harm.

Source: https://www.unhcr.org/in

Trauma

Trauma is used to describe an individual’s reactions to an event that overwhelms their capacity to cope.

Source: https://www.futurelearn.com/

Violence

Violence can be defined as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation.

Source: https://www.emro.who.int/

Violence against children

Violence against children includes all forms of violence against people under 18 years old. For infants and younger children, violence mainly involves child ill-treatment (i.e. physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect) at the hands of parents and other authority figures. Children of all genders are at equal risk of physical and emotional abuse and neglect, and girls are at greater risk of sexual abuse.

Source: https://www.who.int/

Empowerment

Fair Play

Gender equality

Gender equity

Social cohesion

Social-emotional learning

Social empowerment

Social inclusion

Social sustainability

Leadership

Life skills

Human Right to Health

Right to Physical Literacy

Right to Play

Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR)

Empowerment

Empowerment is a cyclical process of enabling people to increase control over their lives, to gain control over the factors and decisions that shape their lives, to increase their resources and qualities and to build capacities to gain access, partners, networks, a voice, in order to gain control.

Source: https://www.un.org/esa/

Fair Play

Fair play encompasses the principles of integrity, respect, and sportsmanship, serving as the moral compass that guides athletes, coaches, and spectators alike. It is a reminder that the ultimate goal transcends victory, emphasizing the importance of ethical behavior and honorable conduct.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Gender equality

Gender equality does not mean all genders will become the same but that their rights, responsibilities, and opportunities will not depend on the gender assigned at birth. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs, and priorities of all genders are taken into consideration, thereby recognizing their diversity.

Source: https://eige.europa.eu/

Gender equity

Gender equity can be described as the principle and practice of fair and equitable allocation of resources to, and opportunities for all genders. It means changing the responses to, and treatment of, everyone to ensure that gender is a neutral factor when accessing resources, rights, and opportunities. Gender equity leads to equality. ( read more about the difference here )

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Social cohesion

Social cohesion can be understood as collective attributes and behaviors characterized by positive social relations, a sense of identification or belonging, and an orientation towards the common good.

Source: https://www.mdpi.com/

Social-Emotional Learning

Social-emotional learning can be described as learning that allows all learners to identify and navigate emotions, practice mindful engagement, and exhibit caring behavior for human flourishing toward a peaceful and sustainable planet.

Source: https://mgiep.unesco.org/

Social Empowerment

Social empowerment is the process of building autonomy, power, confidence, and other necessary means to enact change and pave the way for a better future.

Source: https://www.researchgate.net/

Social inclusion

Social inclusion is defined as the process of improving the terms of participation in society, particularly for people who are disadvantaged, through enhancing opportunities, access to resources, voice, and respect for rights.

Source: https://www.un.org/esa

Social sustainability

Social sustainability is the ability of a society to uphold universal human rights and meet people’s basic needs, such as healthcare, education, and transportation. Healthy communities ensure personal, labor, and cultural rights are respected and all people are protected from discrimination.

Source: https://www.mcgill.ca/

Leadership

Leadership is the ability to motivate and organize a group of people towards achieving a common goal. It is the ability to gain the trust and respect of group members by behaving responsibly and in a fair manner, and putting others’ needs before our own. It includes the ability to understand strengths and vulnerabilities of group members, so as to align them with tasks that optimize their performance. Leadership is also the ability to cause changes in other people and social systems.

Source: https://lifeskillscollaborative.in/

Life skills

Life skills are abilities that enable a person to navigate a range of life contexts with a sense of personal confidence, social conscience and professional competence. They are developed through the use of processes that are inclusive and sensitive to individual, local and regional diversity.

Source: https://lifeskillscollaborative.in/

Human Right to Health

Human rights are universal rights of all human beings, regardless of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Every human being has the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. The right to health is indivisible from other human rights, including the rights to education, participation, food, housing, work, and information.

Source: https://www.who.int/

Right to Physical Literacy

A fundamental Right to Physical Literacy would mean identifying the intrinsic value of physical activity to human living. It would mean the establishment of physical activity/ physical education as a core component of the education curriculum and the provision of life-long opportunities to access physical activity universally. It highlights that everyone, no matter their age, ability, gender, class, or other needs or interests, demands the right to be physically active and physically literate.

Source: https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/

Right to Play

Right to Play has been recognized as a child right by the United Nations. Article 31.1 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides “States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.”

Source: https://www.ohchr.org/en/

Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR)

Sexual and reproductive health is a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to all aspects of sexuality and reproduction , not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. All individuals have a right to make decisions governing their bodies and to access services that support that right.

Source: https://www.unfpa.org/

Advocacy

Beneficiaries

Capacity building

Capacity development

Indirect outreach

Input

Impact framework

Logical framework

Monitoring and evaluation

Output

Outreach

Program indicator

Program sustainability

Stories of change

Target group

Theory of change

Program outcomes

Children and youth

Coach

Community of practice

Curriculum

Facilitator

Official

Advocacy

Advocacy can be understood as a process of trying to effect change in policies, practices, attitudes, beliefs, or actions through influencing people and/or organizations who are in positions of power.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Beneficiaries

Beneficiaries are the individuals or communities who will derive some benefit from the implementation of a project. There may be direct or indirect beneficiaries. Direct beneficiaries are those who participate directly in the project, and thus benefit from its existence such as the participants, coaches, and volunteers.

Source: https://www.fao.org/

Capacity building

Capacity building is the process of equipping individuals, groups, and communities with the skills and competencies needed to take on new roles, or to improve their existing abilities.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Capacity development

Capacity development is a core task of development cooperation. It can be understood as the development of the capability of people, organizations, and societies to manage resources effectively and efficiently in order to realize their own goals on a sustainable basis. It should take place on three levels: the individual, organizational, and societal levels.

Source: https://www.sport-for-development.com/

Indirect outreach

Indirect outreach of a program includes a broader impact. Anyone who is in the zone of influence of an S4D program is impacted by indirect outreach such as the larger community. (adapted)

Source: https://www.fao.org/

Input

Inputs are those things that we use in the project to implement it. For example, in any project, inputs would include aspects like human resources (personnel), finances in the form of money, machinery such as vehicles, and equipment such as public address systems among others.

Source: https://evaluateblog.wordpress.com/

Impact framework

The impact framework helps measure and evaluate the social impact of SAPA initiatives. This framework enables the quantification of impacts, aligning SAPA initiatives with a range of development goals like health, education, and social equity, thereby attracting interest from non-S4D actors. It facilitates efficient resource allocation, capacity building, and cross-sector collaboration, making SAPA interventions more effective and scalable.

Logical framework

A logical framework (also known as LogFrame) is a tool for improving the planning, implementation, management, monitoring, and evaluation of projects. The LogFrame is a way of structuring the main elements in a project and highlighting the logical linkages between them. ( matrix structure can be found here)

Source: https://www.unodc.org/

Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring is a periodically recurring task already beginning in the planning stage of a project or program. Monitoring allows results, processes, and experiences to be documented and used as a basis to steer decision-making and learning processes. Monitoring is checking progress against plans. The data acquired through monitoring is used for evaluation. Evaluation is assessing, as systematically and objectively as possible, a completed project or program (or a phase of an ongoing project or program that has been completed). Evaluations appraise data and information that inform strategic decisions, thus improving the project or program in the future.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Output

Outputs are the first level of results associated with a project. They are the direct immediate term results associated with a project. In other words, they are usually what the project has achieved in the short term.

Source: https://evaluateblog.wordpress.com/

Outreach

Outreach is the act of reaching out to others to provide assistance, information, or support. Community outreach involves reaching out to members of a particular community to provide support or resources. This can include events, presentations, or other forms of outreach that are tailored to the needs of the community.

Source: https://www.alore.io/

Program indicator

A quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development actor.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Program sustainability

Program sustainability can be understood as the ability to maintain programming and its benefits over time. The sustainability capacity of the program requires the structures and processes to be strengthened for adaptability. (adapted definition)

Source: https://www.sustaintool.org/

Stories of change

Stories of change usually attempt to show how a project or program has contributed to change within the lives of its targeted beneficiaries, or other forms of change such as policy or organizational change. This means a story of change is not normally developed until after a project or program has started, whereas a case study may be developed at any point. They are used as alternatives or supplements to quantitative reporting.

Source: https://www.alore.io/

Target group

Target group consists of the group of people or communities for whom the S4D intervention is intended. (adapted)

Source: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/

Theory of change

A theory of change describes how we believe that change could be made to happen and outlines the main elements for that change. It seeks to identify how we think that different factors could interact in relation to the change and what are the underlying assumptions and risks.

Source: https://unsdg.un.org/

Program outcomes

Sport for Development (S4D) programs aim to effect a series of changes to young people’s lives, we call these changes ‘outcomes’. It is important to note that all outcomes are equally crucial to understanding the overall impact of S4D….S4D programs deliver outcomes that can either be intrinsic or extrinsic. For example, a program can support young people to increase essential and intrinsic elements of their nature (self-esteem, managing emotions, motivation), and also support them in developing certain extrinsic behaviors (playing sports, being active and healthy, learning and having a job).

Source: https://sportfordevelopmentcoalition.org/

Children and youth

The United Nations defines children as all people under the age of 18 years old and youth or young people as all people between the ages of 15 and 24 years old.

Source: https://www.sport-for-development.com/

Coach

A coach is a qualified person who plans and delivers sports training, by applying demonstrable skills and knowledge, for performance, recreation, or health goals in a safe manner.

Source: https://www.sportireland.ie/

Community of practice

A community of practice is a group of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

Source: https://www.sportireland.ie/

Curriculum

Curriculum refers to an interactive system of instruction and learning with specific goals, contents, strategies, measurements, and resources. The desired outcome of the curriculum is the successful transfer and/or development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Source: https://www1.udel.edu/

Facilitator

A facilitator can be defined as “one who helps others to learn or who helps to make things easy.” A facilitator helps participants to collaborate as they explore a topic or issue. In the S4D context, they are individuals (such as mentors, instructors, sports coaches, physical education teachers, community trainers, youth leaders, or volunteers) who help enable the effective delivery of S4D programs at the ground level. Trained and competent facilitators are central to the success of any program. (adapted)

Source: https://sswm.info/

Official

An official is a person who conducts competitions, assesses the performances of competitors, referees games, and decides the result of a competition. They are called different names, such as referees, judges, or umpires.

Source: https://evaluateblog.wordpress.com/

Active recreation

Adapted physical activity

Competitive sports

Disability sports

Exercise

Fitness

Grassroots sports

Leisure

Mass participation

Sports for all

Physical activity

Physical Education

Physical literacy

Play

Quality physical education

Recreational activity

Sport(s)

Sports and physical activity (SAPA)

Traditional sports and games

Well-being

Sport Development

Sports for development

Sports for employment

Sports for peace and development

Value Education through sports

Active recreation

Active recreation is leisure time physical activity undertaken outside of structured, competitive sports. It is a set of activities within the wider range of physical activity options that also include active living, active transport, and sport.

Source: https://sport.vic.gov.au/

Adapted physical activity

Adapted physical activity is the profession, the scholarly discipline or field of knowledge, and the service delivery, advocacy and empowerment systems that have been created specifically to make healthy, enjoyable physical activity accessible to all and to assure equal rights to sport instruction, coaching, medicine, recreation, competition and performance of persons with disabilities.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Competitive sports

Competitive sport is done mainly for performance, for achieving good results in competitions, defeating opponents, and becoming the winner or record holder. People who do competitive sports train hard and regularly and participate in various forms of competition. They are organized and belong to different sports teams, clubs, associations, or federations. The highest level of competitive sport is elite sport (top performance sport).

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Disability sports

Disability sport is a term that refers to sport designed for, or specifically practiced, by people with disabilities. People with disabilities are also referred to as athletes with disabilities.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Exercise

A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Fitness

A measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, and includes, for example, physical fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Grassroots sports

Grassroots sport is often defined as a physical leisure activity, organized and unorganized, practiced regularly at a non-professional level for health, educational, or social purposes.

Source: https://diplomacy.isca.org/

Leisure

Leisure refers to the free time that people can spend away from their everyday responsibilities (e.g. work and domestic tasks) to rest, relax, and enjoy life. It is during leisure time that people participate in recreation and sporting activities.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Mass participation

Mass participation represents the lower section of the sports development chain and includes efforts to improve participation opportunities in sports and recreation. Initiatives are focused on introducing as many people as possible to a wide range of sport and recreation activities.

Source: https://sportstec.co.za/

Sports for all

Sport For All (SFA) is an umbrella term for recreation, sports development, mass participation programs, and cultural recreation activities aiming to provide leisure opportunities and health promotion to all social groups.

Source: https://www.eolss.net/

Physical activity

Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Physical activity refers to all movement including during leisure time, for transport to get to and from places, or as part of a person’s work. Both moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity improve health.

Source: https://www.who.int/

Physical Education

Physical education can be defined as an education through physical activities for the development of the total personality of an individual to its fullness and perfection in body, mind, and spirit.

Source: https://ncert.nic.in/

Physical literacy

Physical literacy is the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge, and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities for life.

Source: https://physicalliteracy.ca/

Play

Play is a universal, developmentally appropriate, culturally relevant expression of childhood, and can be viewed in a multitude of ways and within the context of many settings. It occurs sporadically during children’s free time and is broadly identified as unstructured, though can also include child-directed symbolic activities or games with rules.

Source: https://www.outdoorplaycanada.ca/

Quality physical education

Distinct from physical education, the main differences relate to frequency, variety, inclusivity, and value content. Quality physical education is about peer-led learning and rounded skill development which can enhance educational and employability outcomes.

Source: https://www.unesco.org/en/

Recreational activity

Recreation refers to all those activities that people choose to do to refresh their bodies and minds and make their leisure time more interesting and enjoyable. Examples of recreational activities are walking, swimming, meditation, reading, playing games, and dancing.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Sports

Sport is a physical activity that is governed by a set of rules or customs involving specific administration, governing body, organization, and historical background and often engaged in competitively. Included in the definition of sport are all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being, and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sports, and indigenous sports and games.

Source: https://www.icsspe.org/

Sports and physical activity (SAPA)

Sports and Physical Activity (SAPA) is an umbrella term encompassing various forms of sports, physical activity, and physical education including informal play, recreational activities, and various forms of physical exercise that may not be classified as traditional sports. It emphasizes the role of physical activity in promoting health and well-being.

Traditional sports and games

Traditional sports and games (TSG) also referred to as Indigenous sports and games, are motor activities of leisure and recreation that can have a ritual character. They are part of the universal heritage diversity. They are practiced in an individual or collective manner, deriving from regional or local identity; they are based on rules accepted by a group that organizes competitive or non-competitive activities. TSG disposes of a popular character in their practice and in their organization, yet if turned into sport tends to be uniform and institutionalized. The practice of TSG promotes global health.

Source: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/

Well-being

Well-being is a positive state experienced by individuals and societies. Similar to health, it is a resource for daily life and is determined by social, economic, and environmental conditions. Well-being encompasses quality of life and the ability of people and societies to contribute to the world with a sense of meaning and purpose.

Source: https://www.who.int/

Sports Development

Sport development primarily focuses on developing sports, or more specifically a certain sport. Often carried out by (Inter)national federations as well as umbrella organizations such as the IOC, FIFA, and UEFA, it involves strategically developing a specific sport or a number of selected sports through investments, increased publicity, or other means.
It is different from sports for development and involves the promotion of sporting opportunities throughout a community or region.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/, https://www.sacu.co.uk/

Sports for development

Sports for development (also referred to as SfD or S4D) can be defined as the intentional use of sports, physical activity, and play to attain specific developmental goals. It emphasizes the role of physical activity in promoting health and well-being.

Source: https://www.sportanddev.org/

Sports For Employment

There has been growing recognition from governments and practitioners of the potential for sport to contribute to economic development and (youth) employability…There is an understanding that sports can provide an attractive and interactive setting that allows for experiential learning and the development of knowledge and skills that are considered essential in the job market.

Source:  https://encyclopedia.pub/

Sports for peace and development

Sport for peace and development refers to the intentional use of sport, physical activity and play to attain specific development and peace objectives, including, most notably, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; now SDGs).

Source:  https://www.sport-for-development.com/

Value Education through sports

Sport for peace and development refers to the intentional use of sport, physical activity and play to attain specific development and peace objectives, including, most notably, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; now SDGs).

Source:  https://www.sport-for-development.com/